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16 nm lithography process

The 16 nanometer (16 nm) lithography process is a full node semiconductor manufacturing process following the 20 nm process stopgap. Commercial integrated circuit manufacturing using 16 nm process began in 2014. The term "16 nm" is simply a commercial name for a generation of a certain size and its technology, as opposed to gate length or half pitch. This technology is set to be replaced with 10 nm process in 2017.


1st Production​​
Fin Pitch​
Fin Width​
Fin Height​
Contacted Gate Pitch​
Interconnect Pitch (M1P)​
SRAM bit cell
300 mm
Value 20 nm Δ
48 nm N/A
 ? nm
37 nm
90 nm 1x
64 nm 1x
0.07 µm² 0.86x


TSMC demonstrated their 128 Mebibit SRAM wafer from their 16 nm HKMG FinFET process at the 2014 IEEE ISSCC.

16 nm Microprocessors[edit]

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16 nm Microarchitectures[edit]

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  • Chen, Yen-Huei, et al. "A 16 nm 128 Mb SRAM in High-κ Metal-Gate FinFET Technology With Write-Assist Circuitry for Low-VMIN Applications." IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 50.1 (2015): 170-177.
  • Wu, Shien-Yang, et al. "A 16nm FinFET CMOS technology for mobile SoC and computing applications." Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2013 IEEE International. IEEE, 2013.
  • TechInsights/Chipworks, Kevin Gibb, The ConFab 2016