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K7 - Microarchitectures - AMD
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K7 µarch
General Info
Arch TypeCPU
DesignerAMD
ManufacturerAMD
IntroductionJune 23, 1999
Process250 nm, 180 nm, 130 nm
Core Configs1
Pipeline
TypeSuperscalar
SpeculativeNo
Reg RenamingYes
Stages10-15
Instructions
ISAx86-32
ExtensionsMMX, Extended MMX, 3DNow!, Extended 3DNow!, SSE
Cache
L1I Cache64 KiB
2-way set associative
L1D Cache64 KiB
2-way set associative
L2 Cache64 KiB
16-way set associative
Cores
Core NamesSpitfire,
Morgan,
Camaro,
Appaloosa‎‎,
Applebred,
Palomino,
Thoroughbred,
Barton
Succession

K7 was the microarchitecture for AMD's K6-III line of microprocessors as a successor to the K6-III. K7 was superseded by K8 in 2003. K7 was used for AMD's Athlon and Duron families of processors.

Codenames[edit]

Core Family Description
Spitfire Duron 1st generation Duron
Morgan Duron 2nd generation Duron, introduced SSE & Hardware data prefetcher
Camaro Duron Former corename for 2nd generation (Morgan) mobile processors
Appaloosa‎‎ Duron Scheduled to be 3rd generation, scrapped for unknown reasons
Applebred Duron 3rd generation Duron, produced on a newer 130 nm process
Palomino Athlon MP
Athlon XP
1st generation Athlon XP/MP performance processors
Thoroughbred Athlon MP
Athlon XP
2nd generation Athlon XP/MP performance processors
Barton Athlon MP
Athlon XP
3rd generation Athlon XP/MP performance processors

Process Technology[edit]

K7 was originally manufactured on AMD's 180 nm process. By late 2002 AMD transition to a 130 nm process.

Architecture[edit]

K7 was a relatively new design by AMD which marked a departure from the aging Socket 7 and Super Socket 7. The new architecture introduced a number of major changes including a new propietary unified Socket A.

Key changes from K6 / K6-III[edit]

  • System Bus
    • K7 utilizes the Digital Alpha EV6 system bus interface
      • AMD licensed the technology from Digital allowing them to independently develop their own chipsets and motherboards without paying licensing fees to Intel for their Slot 1 GTL+ bus. This does consequently meant incompatibility AMD's motherboards and Intel's motherboards.
      • The EV6 utilizes double data rate (DDR) doubling the effective data transfer rate of the bus speed.
      • 100 MHz bus = 200 MT/s
      • 133 MHz bus = 266 MT/s

Memory Hierarchy[edit]

AMD used a split L1$ and a unified L2$. While originally K7 had an L2$ controller on-die with the actual cache off-chip, AMD moved the L2$ on-die the following year.

  • Cache
    • L1 Cache:
      • 64 KiB 2-way set associative instruction, 64 B line size
      • 64 KiB 2-way set associative instruction, 64 B line size
    • L2 Cache:
      • 64 KiB 16-way set associative, 64 B line size
      • Unified
      • 7 cycles latency
      • 64-bit data bus
      • exclusive
      • Note original Athlon models did not feature an on-die L2$, instead cache was implemented off-chip with a built-in controller supporting up to 8 MiB OF SDR/DDR SRAMs. Full tag was used for 512 or less KiB memory and partial tag for larger caches.
  • TLB
    • ITLB
      • 24-entry, dual-port
    • DTLB
      • 32-entry, dual-port
    • STLB
      • 256-entry

Both AMD's and Intel's original models did not feature on-die L2$. When compared to Intel's original Pentium III L1 which was 32 KiB (albeit at higher associativity), K7 had superior performance due to having 4 times as much cache. By the following year AMD moved the cach on-die. With the introduction of the Coppermine models, Intel moved the L2$ on-die as well with half of K7's latency. This change allowed Pentium models to outperform Athlon for certain workloads.

Die Shot[edit]

Duron DHD1200AMT1B[edit]

AMD Duron DHD1200AMT1B Morgan-based core:

AMD DHD1200AMT1B die shot 2.jpg

Athlon K7500MTR51B C[edit]

AMD Athlon K7500MTR51B C Argon-based core:

AMD Athlon K7500MTR51B C die shot.jpg

All K7 Chips[edit]

K7 Chips
ModelFamilyCoreLaunchedTDPVCOREFreqMax Mem
ZZZZZUniprocessors
Duron 1000DuronMorgan17 December 200125 W
25,000 mW
0.0335 hp
0.025 kW
1.4 V
14 dV
140 cV
1,400 mV
1,000 MHz
1 GHz
1,000,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 1000DuronMorgan20 August 200146.1 W
46,100 mW
0.0618 hp
0.0461 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,000 MHz
1 GHz
1,000,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 1100DuronMorgan30 January 20021.55 V
15.5 dV
155 cV
1,550 mV
1,100 MHz
1.1 GHz
1,100,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 1100DuronMorgan1 October 200150.3 W
50,300 mW
0.0675 hp
0.0503 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,100 MHz
1.1 GHz
1,100,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 1200DuronMorgan30 January 20021.45 V
14.5 dV
145 cV
1,450 mV
1,200 MHz
1.2 GHz
1,200,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 1200DuronMorgan15 November 200154.7 W
54,700 mW
0.0734 hp
0.0547 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,200 MHz
1.2 GHz
1,200,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 1300DuronMorgan30 January 20021.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
1,300 MHz
1.3 GHz
1,300,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 1300DuronMorgan21 January 200260 W
60,000 mW
0.0805 hp
0.06 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,300 MHz
1.3 GHz
1,300,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 1400DuronApplebred15 August 200357 W
57,000 mW
0.0764 hp
0.057 kW
1.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
1,400 MHz
1.4 GHz
1,400,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 1600DuronApplebred15 August 200357 W
57,000 mW
0.0764 hp
0.057 kW
1.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
1,600 MHz
1.6 GHz
1,600,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 1800DuronApplebred15 August 200357 W
57,000 mW
0.0764 hp
0.057 kW
1.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
1,800 MHz
1.8 GHz
1,800,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 550DuronSpitfire19 June 200025.4 W
25,400 mW
0.0341 hp
0.0254 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
550 MHz
0.55 GHz
550,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 600DuronSpitfire19 June 200027.4 W
27,400 mW
0.0367 hp
0.0274 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
600 MHz
0.6 GHz
600,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 600DuronSpitfire19 June 200022.7 W
22,700 mW
0.0304 hp
0.0227 kW
1.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
600 MHz
0.6 GHz
600,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 650DuronSpitfire19 June 200024.3 W
24,300 mW
0.0326 hp
0.0243 kW
1.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
650 MHz
0.65 GHz
650,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 650DuronSpitfire19 June 200029.4 W
29,400 mW
0.0394 hp
0.0294 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
550 MHz
0.55 GHz
550,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 700DuronSpitfire19 June 200025.5 W
25,500 mW
0.0342 hp
0.0255 kW
1.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
700 MHz
0.7 GHz
700,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 700DuronSpitfire17 October 200021.3 W
21,300 mW
0.0286 hp
0.0213 kW
1.4 V
14 dV
140 cV
1,400 mV
700 MHz
0.7 GHz
700,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 700DuronSpitfire19 June 200031.4 W
31,400 mW
0.0421 hp
0.0314 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
700 MHz
0.7 GHz
700,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 750DuronSpitfire5 September 200033.4 W
33,400 mW
0.0448 hp
0.0334 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
750 MHz
0.75 GHz
750,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 750DuronSpitfire5 September 200031.2 W
31,200 mW
0.0418 hp
0.0312 kW
1.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
750 MHz
0.75 GHz
750,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 800DuronMorgan20011.4 V
14 dV
140 cV
1,400 mV
800 MHz
0.8 GHz
800,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 800DuronMorgan14 May 200125 W
25,000 mW
0.0335 hp
0.025 kW
1.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
800 MHz
0.8 GHz
800,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 800DuronMorgan200125 W
25,000 mW
0.0335 hp
0.025 kW
1.4 V
14 dV
140 cV
1,400 mV
800 MHz
0.8 GHz
800,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 800DuronSpitfire2 April 200133.2 W
33,200 mW
0.0445 hp
0.0332 kW
1.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
800 MHz
0.8 GHz
800,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 800DuronSpitfire17 October 200035.4 W
35,400 mW
0.0475 hp
0.0354 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
800 MHz
0.8 GHz
800,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 850DuronMorgan14 May 200125 W
25,000 mW
0.0335 hp
0.025 kW
1.4 V
14 dV
140 cV
1,400 mV
850 MHz
0.85 GHz
850,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 850DuronMorgan14 May 200125 W
25,000 mW
0.0335 hp
0.025 kW
1.5 V
15 dV
150 cV
1,500 mV
850 MHz
0.85 GHz
850,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 850DuronMorgan20011.4 V
14 dV
140 cV
1,400 mV
850 MHz
0.85 GHz
850,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 850DuronSpitfire8 January 200137.4 W
37,400 mW
0.0502 hp
0.0374 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
850 MHz
0.85 GHz
850,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 900DuronMorgan20 August 200125 W
25,000 mW
0.0335 hp
0.025 kW
1.45 V
14.5 dV
145 cV
1,450 mV
900 MHz
0.9 GHz
900,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 900DuronMorgan2 April 200142.7 W
42,700 mW
0.0573 hp
0.0427 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
900 MHz
0.9 GHz
900,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 900DuronSpitfire2 April 200139.5 W
39,500 mW
0.053 hp
0.0395 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
900 MHz
0.9 GHz
900,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 950DuronMorgan12 November 200125 W
25,000 mW
0.0335 hp
0.025 kW
1.45 V
14.5 dV
145 cV
1,450 mV
950 MHz
0.95 GHz
950,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 950DuronMorgan12 July 200144.4 W
44,400 mW
0.0595 hp
0.0444 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
950 MHz
0.95 GHz
950,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 950DuronSpitfire6 June 200141.5 W
41,500 mW
0.0557 hp
0.0415 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
950 MHz
0.95 GHz
950,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 600DuronSpitfire15 January 20011.4 V
14 dV
140 cV
1,400 mV
600 MHz
0.6 GHz
600,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 650DuronSpitfire15 January 20011.4 V
14 dV
140 cV
1,400 mV
650 MHz
0.65 GHz
650,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Duron 700DuronSpitfire15 January 20011.4 V
14 dV
140 cV
1,400 mV
700 MHz
0.7 GHz
700,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
ZZZZZUniprocessors
Athlon MP 1000Athlon MPPalomino5 June 200146.1 W
46,100 mW
0.0618 hp
0.0461 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,000 MHz
1 GHz
1,000,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 1200Athlon MPPalomino5 June 20011.8 V
18 dV
180 cV
1,800 mV
1,200 MHz
1.2 GHz
1,200,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 1200Athlon MPPalomino5 June 200154.7 W
54,700 mW
0.0734 hp
0.0547 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,200 MHz
1.2 GHz
1,200,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 1200Athlon MPPalomino5 June 20011.55 V
15.5 dV
155 cV
1,550 mV
1,200 MHz
1.2 GHz
1,200,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 1500+Athlon MPPalomino15 October 200160 W
60,000 mW
0.0805 hp
0.06 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,333 MHz
1.333 GHz
1,333,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 1600+Athlon MPPalomino15 October 200162.8 W
62,800 mW
0.0842 hp
0.0628 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,400 MHz
1.4 GHz
1,400,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 1800+Athlon MPPalomino15 October 200166 W
66,000 mW
0.0885 hp
0.066 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,533 MHz
1.533 GHz
1,533,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 1900+Athlon MPPalomino12 December 200166 W
66,000 mW
0.0885 hp
0.066 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,600 MHz
1.6 GHz
1,600,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 2000+Athlon MPThoroughbred27 August 20021.65 V
16.5 dV
165 cV
1,650 mV
1,667 MHz
1.667 GHz
1,667,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 2000+Athlon MPPalomino13 March 200266 W
66,000 mW
0.0885 hp
0.066 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,667 MHz
1.667 GHz
1,667,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 2000+Athlon MPThoroughbred27 August 200258.2 W
58,200 mW
0.078 hp
0.0582 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
1,667 MHz
1.667 GHz
1,667,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 2100+Athlon MPPalomino19 June 200266 W
66,000 mW
0.0885 hp
0.066 kW
1.75 V
17.5 dV
175 cV
1,750 mV
1,733 MHz
1.733 GHz
1,733,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 2200+Athlon MPThoroughbred27 August 200260 W
60,000 mW
0.0805 hp
0.06 kW
1.65 V
16.5 dV
165 cV
1,650 mV
1,800 MHz
1.8 GHz
1,800,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 2400+Athlon MPThoroughbred10 December 200260 W
60,000 mW
0.0805 hp
0.06 kW
1.65 V
16.5 dV
165 cV
1,650 mV
2,000 MHz
2 GHz
2,000,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 2400+Athlon MPThoroughbred10 December 20021.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
2,000 MHz
2 GHz
2,000,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 2600+Athlon MPBarton6 May 200360 W
60,000 mW
0.0805 hp
0.06 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
2,000 MHz
2 GHz
2,000,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 2600+Athlon MPThoroughbred4 February 200360 W
60,000 mW
0.0805 hp
0.06 kW
1.65 V
16.5 dV
165 cV
1,650 mV
2,133 MHz
2.133 GHz
2,133,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Athlon MP 2800+Athlon MPBarton6 May 200360 W
60,000 mW
0.0805 hp
0.06 kW
1.6 V
16 dV
160 cV
1,600 mV
2,133 MHz
2.133 GHz
2,133,000 kHz
4,096 MiB
4,194,304 KiB
4,294,967,296 B
4 GiB
0.00391 TiB
Count: 57

See also[edit]

codenameK7 +
core count1 +
designerAMD +
first launchedJune 23, 1999 +
full page nameamd/microarchitectures/k7 +
instance ofmicroarchitecture +
instruction set architecturex86-32 +
manufacturerAMD +
microarchitecture typeCPU +
nameK7 +
pipeline stages (max)15 +
pipeline stages (min)10 +
process250 nm (0.25 μm, 2.5e-4 mm) +, 180 nm (0.18 μm, 1.8e-4 mm) + and 130 nm (0.13 μm, 1.3e-4 mm) +