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Atom - Intel
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Intel Atom
intel atom (2015).png
Intel Atom (2015 logo)
Developer Intel
Manufacturer Intel
Type system on chips, microprocessors
Introduction March 2, 2008 (announced)
April 2, 2008 (launch)
ISA IA-32, x86-64
µarch Bonnell
Word size 32
32 bit
4 octets
8 nibbles
, 64
64 bit
8 octets
16 nibbles
Process 45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
, 32 nm
0.032 μm
3.2e-5 mm
, 22 nm
0.022 μm
2.2e-5 mm
, 14 nm
0.014 μm
1.4e-5 mm
Technology CMOS
Clock 500 MHz-2400 MHz
Package FCBGA-437, PBGA-441
Socket BGA

Atom is an family of ultra-low-voltage 32 and 64-bit microprocessors and system on chips designed by Intel since 2008.

Models[edit]

Bonnell[edit]

Main article: Bonnel Microarchitecture

Bonnell was the first microarchitecture designed specifically for the ultra-low power microprocessor market. Introduced in 2008, it featured fully x86-compatible cores with a TDP of only 500 mW to 2 W, less than any other x86 processor available that the time. Bonnell's low-power came from its simplicity, being an in-order dual-issue piplined CPU. All Bonnell-based processors were manufactured on Intel's 45 nm process.

Silverthorne (MIDs, 1st Gen)[edit]

intel atom logo (2008-2009).png
See also: Silverthorne Core

The first series of Bonnell processors were introduced during the 2008 Intel Developer Forum (IDF) in Shanghai, China. Those 32-bit processors were based on the the Silverthorne core which were designed for the Mobile Internet Devices (MID) market. Silverthorne processors have 56 KiB of L1$ and 512 KiB of L2. Silverthorne has support for the traditional AGTL+-based FSB as well as a new low power CMOS FSB specifically introduced to reduce power.

Silverthorne chips consist of 47 million transistors on a 24.2 mm² die. All processors are a single core. Additionally all models support every x86 extension up to SSSE3 (SMM, FPU, NX, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3). The original series of chips that were introduced in 2008 featured a tiny FCBGA-437 package measuring just 13 mm x 14 mm. Intel introduced an set of new models in a much bigger 22x22 mm² FCBGA-441 package. Models ending in P use those large packages. A couple of models (those ending with 'T') also support industrial temperature ranges.

Silverthorne chips have an incredibly simple design featuring only the CPU itself on-die. The southbridge and northbridge are integrated on a secondary Poulsbo chipset which features the memory controller, an integrated graphics, and the various I/O ports.

 List of Silverthorne-based Atom Processors
 Main processorBusFeatures
ModelPriceProcessLaunchedCTFreqTDPSDPSpeedRatePackageHTVT-x
Z500$ 45.00
€ 40.50
£ 36.45
¥ 4,649.85
45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
2 April 2008120.8 GHz
800 MHz
800,000 kHz
650 mW
0.65 W
8.7165e-4 hp
6.5e-4 kW
960 mW
0.96 W
0.00129 hp
9.6e-4 kW
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
400 MT/s
0.4 GT/s
400,000 kT/s
FCBGA-441
Z510$ 45.00
€ 40.50
£ 36.45
¥ 4,649.85
45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
2 April 2008111.1 GHz
1,100 MHz
1,100,000 kHz
2,000 mW
2 W
0.00268 hp
0.002 kW
960 mW
0.96 W
0.00129 hp
9.6e-4 kW
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
400 MT/s
0.4 GT/s
400,000 kT/s
FCBGA-441
Z510P45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
2 March 2009121.1 GHz
1,100 MHz
1,100,000 kHz
2,000 mW
2 W
0.00268 hp
0.002 kW
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
400 MT/s
0.4 GT/s
400,000 kT/s
FCBGA-437
Z510PT45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
2 March 2009121.1 GHz
1,100 MHz
1,100,000 kHz
2,000 mW
2 W
0.00268 hp
0.002 kW
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
400 MT/s
0.4 GT/s
400,000 kT/s
FCBGA-437
Z51545 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
8 April 2009121.2 GHz
1,200 MHz
1,200,000 kHz
650 mW
0.65 W
8.7165e-4 hp
6.5e-4 kW
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
400 MT/s
0.4 GT/s
400,000 kT/s
FCBGA-441
Z520$ 65.00
€ 58.50
£ 52.65
¥ 6,716.45
45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
2 April 2008121.333 GHz
1,333.33 MHz
1,333,330 kHz
2,000 mW
2 W
0.00268 hp
0.002 kW
960 mW
0.96 W
0.00129 hp
9.6e-4 kW
133.33 MHz
0.133 GHz
133,330 kHz
533.33 MT/s
0.533 GT/s
533,330 kT/s
FCBGA-441
Z520PT45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
2 March 2009121.333 GHz
1,333.33 MHz
1,333,330 kHz
2,000 mW
2 W
0.00268 hp
0.002 kW
133.33 MHz
0.133 GHz
133,330 kHz
533.33 MT/s
0.533 GT/s
533,330 kT/s
FCBGA-437
Z530$ 95.00
€ 85.50
£ 76.95
¥ 9,816.35
45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
2 April 2008121.6 GHz
1,599.99 MHz
1,599,990 kHz
2,200 mW
2.2 W
0.00295 hp
0.0022 kW
133.33 MHz
0.133 GHz
133,330 kHz
533.33 MT/s
0.533 GT/s
533,330 kT/s
FCBGA-441
Z530P45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
2 March 2009121.6 GHz
1,599.99 MHz
1,599,990 kHz
2,000 mW
2 W
0.00268 hp
0.002 kW
133.33 MHz
0.133 GHz
133,330 kHz
533.33 MT/s
0.533 GT/s
533,330 kT/s
FCBGA-437
Z540$ 160.00
€ 144.00
£ 129.60
¥ 16,532.80
45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
2 April 2008121.867 GHz
1,866.66 MHz
1,866,660 kHz
2,400 mW
2.4 W
0.00322 hp
0.0024 kW
960 mW
0.96 W
0.00129 hp
9.6e-4 kW
133.33 MHz
0.133 GHz
133,330 kHz
533.33 MT/s
0.533 GT/s
533,330 kT/s
FCBGA-441
Z55045 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
8 April 2009122 GHz
1,999.99 MHz
1,999,990 kHz
2,400 mW
2.4 W
0.00322 hp
0.0024 kW
133.33 MHz
0.133 GHz
133,330 kHz
533.33 MT/s
0.533 GT/s
533,330 kT/s
FCBGA-441
Z56045 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
June 2010122.133 GHz
2,133.33 MHz
2,133,330 kHz
2,500 mW
2.5 W
0.00335 hp
0.0025 kW
133.33 MHz
0.133 GHz
133,330 kHz
533.33 MT/s
0.533 GT/s
533,330 kT/s
FCBGA-441
Count: 12

Lincroft (MIDs, 2nd Gen)[edit]

See also: Lincroft Core

Lincroft is the second generation Bonnell-based models, a successor to Silverthorne. Lincroft is drastically different to Silverthorne. It's a complete system on a chip solution, incorporating most of the functionality of the chipset on-die, including the memory controller, display controller, and integrated graphics. Lincroft, along with the Moorestown, models were introduced on May 4, 2010.

Lincroft SoCs where also fabricated on a 45 nm process but incorporate a large part of the southbridge. For those reasons the die is considerably larger, 65.25 mm² incorporating 140,000,000 transistors. As with Silverthorne, all models support every x86 extension up to SSSE3 (SMM, FPU, NX, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3). Lincroft integrates the same Imagination Technologies PowerVR SGX 535 IGP as Silverthorne but operating at double the frequency. Lincroft chips are packaged in an FCBGA-518.

In mid-2011 Intel introduce a number of new chips, as part of the Oak Trail platform, utilizing the SM35 Express chipset.

 List of Lincroft-based Atom Processors
 Main processorMemoryIGPFeatures
ModelFamilyPriceProcessLaunchedCTFreqBurstTDPTypeMemNameFrequencyPackageHTBurst
Z600Atom45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
4 May 201012800 MHz
0.8 GHz
800,000 kHz
1.2 GHz
1,200 MHz
1,200,000 kHz
1,300 mW
1.3 W
0.00174 hp
0.0013 kW
DDR-4001 GiB
1,024 MiB
1,048,576 KiB
1,073,741,824 B
9.765625e-4 TiB
PowerVR SGX535200 MHz
0.2 GHz
200,000 KHz
FCBGA-518
Z605Atom45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
4 May 2010121,000 MHz
1 GHz
1,000,000 kHz
2,200 mW
2.2 W
0.00295 hp
0.0022 kW
DDR-400 DDR2-8002 GiB
2,048 MiB
2,097,152 KiB
2,147,483,648 B
0.00195 TiB
PowerVR SGX535400 MHz
0.4 GHz
400,000 KHz
FCBGA-518
Z610Atom45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
4 May 201012800 MHz
0.8 GHz
800,000 kHz
1.2 GHz
1,200 MHz
1,200,000 kHz
1,300 mW
1.3 W
0.00174 hp
0.0013 kW
DDR-400 DDR2-8002 GiB
2,048 MiB
2,097,152 KiB
2,147,483,648 B
0.00195 TiB
PowerVR SGX535400 MHz
0.4 GHz
400,000 KHz
FCBGA-518
Z612Atom45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
4 May 201012900 MHz
0.9 GHz
900,000 kHz
1.5 GHz
1,500 MHz
1,500,000 kHz
1,300 mW
1.3 W
0.00174 hp
0.0013 kW
DDR-400 DDR2-8002 GiB
2,048 MiB
2,097,152 KiB
2,147,483,648 B
0.00195 TiB
PowerVR SGX535400 MHz
0.4 GHz
400,000 KHz
FCBGA-518
Z615Atom45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
4 May 2010121,200 MHz
1.2 GHz
1,200,000 kHz
1.6 GHz
1,600 MHz
1,600,000 kHz
2,200 mW
2.2 W
0.00295 hp
0.0022 kW
DDR-400 DDR2-8002 GiB
2,048 MiB
2,097,152 KiB
2,147,483,648 B
0.00195 TiB
PowerVR SGX535400 MHz
0.4 GHz
400,000 KHz
FCBGA-518
Z620Atom45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
4 May 201012900 MHz
0.9 GHz
900,000 kHz
1.6 GHz
1,600 MHz
1,600,000 kHz
1,300 mW
1.3 W
0.00174 hp
0.0013 kW
DDR-400 DDR2-8002 GiB
2,048 MiB
2,097,152 KiB
2,147,483,648 B
0.00195 TiB
PowerVR SGX535400 MHz
0.4 GHz
400,000 KHz
FCBGA-518
Z625Atom45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
4 May 2010121,500 MHz
1.5 GHz
1,500,000 kHz
1.9 GHz
1,900 MHz
1,900,000 kHz
2,200 mW
2.2 W
0.00295 hp
0.0022 kW
DDR-400 DDR2-8002 GiB
2,048 MiB
2,097,152 KiB
2,147,483,648 B
0.00195 TiB
PowerVR SGX535400 MHz
0.4 GHz
400,000 KHz
FCBGA-518
Z650Atom45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
11 April 2011121,200 MHz
1.2 GHz
1,200,000 kHz
3,000 mW
3 W
0.00402 hp
0.003 kW
DDR-400 DDR2-8002 GiB
2,048 MiB
2,097,152 KiB
2,147,483,648 B
0.00195 TiB
PowerVR SGX535400 MHz
0.4 GHz
400,000 KHz
FCBGA-518
Z670Atom$ 75.00
€ 67.50
£ 60.75
¥ 7,749.75
45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
11 April 2011121,500 MHz
1.5 GHz
1,500,000 kHz
3,000 mW
3 W
0.00402 hp
0.003 kW
DDR-400 DDR2-8002 GiB
2,048 MiB
2,097,152 KiB
2,147,483,648 B
0.00195 TiB
PowerVR SGX535400 MHz
0.4 GHz
400,000 KHz
FCBGA-518
Count: 9

Diamondville (Nettops)[edit]

See also: Diamondville Core

Diamondville-based processors were introduced in mid-2008. Those single-core chips were designed for more complex devices such as light-weight notebooks and various nettops. One dual-core model was also introduced which featured two identical Diamondville in a single package. Diamondville processors have 56 KiB of L1$ and 512 KiB of L2 (twice as much for the dual-core variant).

Diamondville chips consist of 47 million transistors on a 25.96 mm² die. All processors are a single core (except for the 330 which features two 230 dies). Additionally all models support every x86 extension up to SSSE3 (SMM, FPU, NX, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3). These chips utilize the bigger 22x22 mm² FCBGA-441 package.

As with the Silverthorne chips, Diamondville models only incorporate the CPU therefore they must make use of the Calistoga chipset for the memory controller, integrated graphics, and I/O functionality.

 List of Diamondville-based Atom Processors
 Main processorBusFeatures
ModelFamilyPriceProcessLaunchedCTFreqTDPSpeedRatePackageISAEISTHT
230Atom$ 29.00
€ 26.10
£ 23.49
¥ 2,996.57
45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
3 June 2008121.6 GHz
1,599.99 MHz
1,599,990 kHz
4 W
4,000 mW
0.00536 hp
0.004 kW
133.33 MHz
0.133 GHz
133,330 kHz
533.33 MT/s
0.533 GT/s
533,330 kT/s
FCBGA-437x86-64
330Atom$ 43.00
€ 38.70
£ 34.83
¥ 4,443.19
45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
21 September 2008241.6 GHz
1,599.99 MHz
1,599,990 kHz
8 W
8,000 mW
0.0107 hp
0.008 kW
133.33 MHz
0.133 GHz
133,330 kHz
533.33 MT/s
0.533 GT/s
533,330 kT/s
FCBGA-437x86-64
N270Atom$ 44.00
€ 39.60
£ 35.64
¥ 4,546.52
45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
3 June 2008121.6 GHz
1,599.99 MHz
1,599,990 kHz
2.5 W
2,500 mW
0.00335 hp
0.0025 kW
133.33 MHz
0.133 GHz
133,330 kHz
533.33 MT/s
0.533 GT/s
533,330 kT/s
FCBGA-437x86-32
N280Atom45 nm
0.045 μm
4.5e-5 mm
7 February 2009121.667 GHz
1,666.66 MHz
1,666,660 kHz
2.5 W
2,500 mW
0.00335 hp
0.0025 kW
166.66 MHz
0.167 GHz
166,660 kHz
666.66 MT/s
0.667 GT/s
666,660 kT/s
FCBGA-437x86-32
Count: 4


SoCs[edit]

Microarchitectures[edit]

T/T Process µarch Intro Date Cores
Tick 45 nm Bonnell 2008 Silverthorne, Diamondville
Tock 2010 Lincroft, Pineview, Tunnel Creek, Stellarton, Sodaville, Groveland
Tick 32 nm Saltwell 2011 Clover Trail, Cedar Trail
Tick 22 nm Silvermont 2013 Bay Trail
Tock 14 nm Airmont 2015 Cherry Trail, Braswell
Tick Goldmont 2016
Facts about "Atom - Intel"
designerIntel +
first announcedMarch 2, 2008 +
first launchedApril 2, 2008 +
full page nameintel/atom +
instance ofsystem on a chip family + and microprocessor family +
instruction set architectureIA-32 + and x86-64 +
manufacturerIntel +
microarchitectureBonnell +
packageFCBGA-437 + and PBGA-441 +
process45 nm (0.045 μm, 4.5e-5 mm) +, 32 nm (0.032 μm, 3.2e-5 mm) +, 22 nm (0.022 μm, 2.2e-5 mm) + and 14 nm (0.014 μm, 1.4e-5 mm) +
socketBGA +
technologyCMOS +
word size32 bit (4 octets, 8 nibbles) + and 64 bit (8 octets, 16 nibbles) +