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4004 - Intel
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4004
intel 4004 chip.jpg
4004 in CerDIP
General Info
DesignerIntel
ManufacturerIntel
Model Number4004
Part NumberC4004, D4004, P4004
MarketCommercial, Industrial
IntroductionNovember 15, 1971 (announced)
December, 1971 (launched)
End-of-life1982 (last order)
General Specs
FamilyMCS-4
SeriesMCS
Frequency500 kHz, 740 kHz
Microarchitecture
ISA4004 (4004)
Microarchitecture4004
Chipset4001, 4002, 4003
Process10 µm
Transistors2,250
TechnologypMOS
Die12 mm²
4 mm × 3 mm
Word Size4 bit
Cores1
Threads1
Max Address Mem4 kB
Electrical
Power dissipation1 W
Vcore15 V ± 5%
Tstorage-55 °C – 125 °C
Tambient0 °C – 70 °C

The Intel 4004 was released by Intel Corporation in 1971 and was the first commercially available microprocessor. The 4004 was a 4-bit CPU, designed for use in the Busicom 141-PF printing calculator[1]. The chip, which is clocked at 740 KHz, employs a 10µm[2] process silicon-gate, capable of executing 92,000 instructions per second. The chip was capable of accessing 4KB of program memory and 640 bytes of RAM. The 4004 was part of the Intel MCS-4 system.

The microprocessor had a limited architecture, such as: only a 3-levels deep stack, a complex memory access scheme, and no interrupt support. In 1974 Intel released an enhanced version of the chip called the 4040.

Variations[edit]

A National Semiconductor version of the 4004, INS4004J

Three primary source variations were produced by Intel: C4004, D4004 and the P4004. The Intel C4004 was the first chip to be manufactured; it had the gray traces visible on the white ceramic package itself. The C4004 was produced up until mid 1976, when production for the Intel D4004 began. The D4004 had a plastic, black ceramic package. The Intel P4004 is the plastic packaging version.

A couple secondary sources exists, which has been developed by National Semiconductor and Hitachi since mid-1975. National Semiconductor produced two versions: INS4004J and INS4004D. The INS4004J is a 16-pin black, ceramic DIP, while the INS4004D version is a 16-pin side-brazed, ceramic DIP. The other source was the HD35404 made by Hitachi. A third source was Microsystems International which actually manufactured an enhanced version of the chip since mid 1970 (also introduced in 1971).

Manufacturer Model Package
Intel C4004 16-pin Ceramic DIP
Intel D4004 16-pin Ceramic DIP
Intel P4004 16-pin Plastic DIP
National Semiconductor INS4004D 16-pin Ceramic DIP
National Semiconductor INS4004J 16-pin side-brazed Ceramic DIP
Hitachi HD35404 16-pin DIP
Microsystems International MF7114  ?

Pinout[edit]

Pinout diagram of the Intel 4004

The 4004 has 16 pins that are used for i/o, memory controller, clock phases, power and reset.

Pinout & Description
Pin # Pin Name Purpose Explanation
1 D0 Bidirectional data bus pins Address and data communication to the ROM and RAM occurs on D0-D3.
2 D1
3 D2
4 D3
5 Vss Main Supply
6 Clock Phase 1 Clock inputs
7 Clock Phase 2
8 Sync ROM & RAM Sync Synchronizes the ROM and RAM by signaling the clock is on the raising edge.
9 Reset Reset flag A logic 1 clears all processor status registers and forces the program counter to jump to address 0x0. The RESET signal must be on for at least 64 clock cycles in order to take effect.
10 Test Test logic state Signal can be tested via the JCN instruction.
11 CM-ROM CM-ROM output ROM selection signal used to retrieve data from memory.
12 VDD VSS -15±5%
13 CM-RAM3 CM-ROM outputs Bank selection signal for the 4002 RAM chips in the system.
14 CM-RAM2
15 CM-RAM1
16 CM-RAM0

Designers[edit]

Lead designers for the 4004 are:

  • Ted Hoff
  • Federico Faggin
  • Stan Mazor
  • Masatoshi Shim

Die Shot[edit]

4004 die shot.png

References[edit]

Facts about "4004 - Intel"
base frequency0.5 MHz (5.0e-4 GHz, 500 kHz) + and 0.74 MHz (7.4e-4 GHz, 740 kHz) +
chipset4001 +, 4002 + and 4003 +
core count1 +
core voltage15 V (150 dV, 1,500 cV, 15,000 mV) +
core voltage tolerance5% +
designerTed Hoff +, Federico Faggin +, Stan Mazor +, Masatoshi Shim + and Intel +
die area12 mm² (0.0186 in², 0.12 cm², 12,000,000 µm²) +
die length4 mm (0.4 cm, 0.157 in, 4,000 µm) +
die width3 mm (0.3 cm, 0.118 in, 3,000 µm) +
familyMCS-4 +
first announcedNovember 15, 1971 +
first launchedDecember 1971 +
full page nameintel/mcs-4/4004 +
instance ofmicroprocessor +
isa4004 +
isa family4004 +
last order1982 +
ldateDecember 1971 +
main imageFile:intel 4004 chip.jpg +
main image caption4004 in CerDIP +
manufacturerIntel +
market segmentCommercial + and Industrial +
max ambient temperature343.15 K (70 °C, 158 °F, 617.67 °R) +
max memory address4 kB +
max storage temperature398.15 K (125 °C, 257 °F, 716.67 °R) +
microarchitecture4004 +
min ambient temperature273.15 K (0 °C, 32 °F, 491.67 °R) +
min storage temperature218.15 K (-55 °C, -67 °F, 392.67 °R) +
model number4004 +
name4004 +
part numberC4004 +, P4004 + and D4004 +
power dissipation1 W (1,000 mW, 0.00134 hp, 0.001 kW) +
process10,000 nm (10 μm, 0.01 mm) +
seriesMCS +
technologypMOS +
thread count1 +
transistor count2,250 +
word size4 bit (0.5 octets, 1 nibbles) +