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z14 - Microarchitectures - IBM
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z14 µarch
General Info
Arch TypeCPU
IntroductionJuly 17, 2017
Process14 nm
Core Configs7, 8, 9, 10
TypeSuperscalar, Pipelined
Reg RenamingYes
L1I Cache128 KiB
L1D Cache128 KiB

z14 is a z/Architecture-based microarchitecture designed by IBM and introduced in 2017 for their z14 processors and mainframes. The z14 microarchitecture replaced the z13.

Process Technology[edit]

z14-based microprocessors are manufactured on GlobalFoundries's 14 nm (14HP) FinFET Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) process. The process was designed by IBM at what used to be their East Fishkill, New York fab which has since been sold to GlobalFoundries.

Release Dates[edit]

IBM z14 was announced on July 17, 2017. General availability started on September 13, 2017.


ibm z14 overview.png

Key changes from z13[edit]

  • 14 nm process (from 22 nm)
    • 6.1B transistors (from 3.99B; 53% increase)
  • Higher clock frequency (5.2 GHz from 5 GHz; 4% increase)
  • Higher scalability
    • Up to 170-way multiprocessing (from 141-way)
  • Core
    • Improved Operand Store Compare (OSC) prediction
    • Faster branch wakeup
    • Improved instruction delivery
    • Reduced execution latency
  • Cache
    • New directory design
      • Power efficient
    • L1I$ increased to 128 KiB/core (from 96 KiB/core; 33% increase)
    • L2D$ increased to 4 MiB/core (from 2 MiB/core; 100% increase)
    • L3$ increased to 128 MiB/CP (from 64 MiB/CP; 100% increase)
    • New 672 MiB/drawer of shared L4
  • TLB
    • New Translation/TLB2
      • Reduced latency
    • 4 concurrent translation
    • lookup integrated into L2 access pipe
    • 2x Larger CRSTE
    • 1.5x large PTEs
    • New 64-entry 2 GiB TLB2
  • BTB
  • Central Processor Assist for Cryptographic Function (CPACF)
    • Dedicated co-processor for each core
    • Claims 6x faster encryption functions (vs. z13)
      • 4x Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) speedup
    • Support for True Random Number Generator
    • New support for SHA-3 standard

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

New instructions[edit]

  • New SIMD instructions for COBOL and analytics applications



The IBM z14 mainframe comes in a number of slightly different flavors. In order to reach the highest clock speed of 5.2 GHz, the water cooled system is required, otherwise the air cooled is sufficient.

Water Cooled
ibm z14 mainframe (water cooled).png
Air Cooled
ibm z14 mainframe (air cooled).png

Every mainframe have two frames that are bolted together. Frames are built to Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) standards and are 42U EIA frames. Viewed from the front, the right side is called Frame A while the left side is called Frame Z.

A Frame[edit]

  At the top of the frame is an optional overhead power cabling solution. There are top exit options for fiber optic cables and other ethernet solutions such as FICON, OSA, 12x InfiniBand, 1x InfiniBand, ICA, zHyperLink Express, Coupling Express LR, and RoCE.
ibm z14 ibfs.png There are two to four optional integrated battery features (IBFs) which serves as a local uninterrupted power source. Additionally, the IBFs provide additional power robustness functionalities such as increases power line disturbance immunity and noise reduction. The number of installed IBFs depends on the number of power regulators that are installed and is always installed in pairs.
ibm z14 power supplies.png Additionally, at the top are a large set of Bulk power regulators (BPRs). The number of BPRs in the frame will depend on the exact configuration of the unit.
ibm z14 io drawers.png The entire bottom part of the rack consists of up to four PCIe I/O drawers, installed top-down.

Z Frame[edit]

New text document.svg This section is empty; you can help add the missing info by editing this page.



Below is a layout of a single physical core:

z14 core layout.png

  • L2 - L2I$ + L2D$
  • PC + TP - Core pervasive unit (instrumentation/error collection) + Trap
  • LSU - Load-store unit (+ L1D$)
  • XU - Translation unit (TLB + DAT)
  • ICM - Instruction cache & merge
  • COP - Dedicated Co-Processor
  • FXU - Fixed-point unit
  • VFU - Vector and Floating point Unit
  • ISU - Instruction sequence unit
  • RU - Recovery unit
  • IDU - Instruction decode unit
  • IFB - Instruction fetch and branch prediction

Single-chip module (SCM)[edit]

IBM's z14 Single-Chip Module (SCM) consists of a multi-layer metal substrate module that includes either:

  • 1x Processor Unit (PU)
  • 1x System Controller (SC)

Central Processor (CP) Chip[edit]

z14 next to dime.png
  • IBM's developed (now GlobalFoundries) 14HP Process
    • 17 Metal Layers
  • deca-core (10 Processor Units (PUs))
  • 5.2 GHz (192 ps cycle time)
  • 6,100,000,000 transistors
  • 14.4 miles of copper wire
  • 26.5 x 27.8 mm die
    • 736.7 mm² die size
    • 18,581 power pins
    • 1,505 signal pins

z14 die floor plan.png

System Controller (SC) Chip[edit]

z14sc next to a dime.png
  • IBM's developed (now GlobalFoundries) 14HP Process
    • 17 Metal Layers
  • 25.3 x 27.5 mm die
  • 695.75 mm² die size
  • 7,100,000,000 transistors
  • + 2,100,000,000 cells of eDRAM (~2.1B xTors + 2.1B capacitors)
    • 672 MiB shared eDRAM L4 Cache

ibm z14 sc floor plan.png
codenamez14 +
core count7 +, 8 +, 9 + and 10 +
designerIBM +
first launchedJuly 17, 2017 +
full page nameibm/microarchitectures/z14 +
instance ofmicroarchitecture +
instruction set architecturez/Architecture +
manufacturerGlobalFoundries +
microarchitecture typeCPU +
namez14 +
process14 nm (0.014 μm, 1.4e-5 mm) +