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KiloCore - UC Davis
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ucd kilocore 2.png
KiloCore on a daughterboard
General Info
DesignerUC Davis
IntroductionJune 17, 2016 (announced)
General Specs
Frequency1,782 MHz
Process32 nm
Die64 mm²
Word Size16 bit
Power dissipation39.6 W
Vcore1.1 V
ucd kilocore.jpg

KiloCore is a prototype 16-bit MPPA chip containing 1,000 cores developed by the VLSI Computation Laboratory (VCL) at UC Davis. The chip, which was manufactured on IBM's 32 nm process PD-SOI technology, is said to have a maximum computation rate of 1.78 trillion instructions per second. This chip was presented at the 2016 Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits on June 17, 2016.

Contrary to many online reports, the KiloCore is not the world's first microprocessor to achieve 1,000 or more cores. A number of other processors, including the PEZY-SC, reached the milestone first.


The chip is designed as a massively parallel processor array, with 992 cores arranged as a grid 32 by 31. 8 Additional cores are found along with 12 memory modules of 64 KB SRAM ea (for a total of 768 KB). Communication between cores is done via a circuit-switched network and a very-small-area packet router (see wormhole routing).


Each core is an independent processing unit capable of issuing one instruction in-order per cycle. Instructions may come from the local instruction memory or they may be fetched from one of the independent memory module. Likewise data may come from the data memory or from the independent memory module.

Each core contains 128x40-bit local instruction memory. Data memory is also stored in each as 2 banks of 128x16-bit each (for a total of 256x16-bit). The core also has three data address generators, two 32x16 input FIFO buffers, a 16-bit fixed-poit data path.

Memory Module[edit]

Each memory module contains 64 KB of SRAM and has an area of 0.164 mm². The module also contains two 32x16-bit FIFO buffers.


ucd kilocore floorplan.png

Each core has an area of 0.055 mm² (232 µm x 239 µm) and contains 575,000 transistors. The SRAM memory module has an area of 0.164 mm² (367 µm x 446 µm).


Each core supports 72 general instructions supporting signed and unsigned operations. The processor operates on 16-bit data word size with the exception of the multiply-accumulator which has a 40-bit output. Larger word size operations such as 32-bit may be emulated via software.


  • Per core
    • 640 bytes (128x40-bit) local instruction memory
    • 512 bytes (256x16-bit) local data memory
  • 768 KB SRAM on-die
    • 12 shared SRAM memory modules, 64 KB each


Facts about "KiloCore - UC Davis"
base frequency1,782 MHz (1.782 GHz, 1,782,000 kHz) +
core count1,000 +
core voltage1.1 V (11 dV, 110 cV, 1,100 mV) +
designerUC Davis +
die area64 mm² (0.0992 in², 0.64 cm², 64,000,000 µm²) +
first announcedJune 17, 2016 +
full page nameuc davis/kilocore +
instance ofmicroprocessor +
ldateJune 17, 2016 +
main imageFile:ucd kilocore 2.png +
main image captionKiloCore on a daughterboard +
manufacturerIBM +
nameKiloCore +
power dissipation39.6 W (39,600 mW, 0.0531 hp, 0.0396 kW) +
process32 nm (0.032 μm, 3.2e-5 mm) +
technologyCMOS +
transistor count621,000,000 +
word size16 bit (2 octets, 4 nibbles) +