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Am486 - AMD
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AMD Am486
AMD Am486.jpg
Enhanced Am486DX2-66SV8B
Developer AMD
Manufacturer AMD
Type Microprocessors
Introduction February, 1992 (announced)
April 1993 (launch)
Production 1992
Architecture 80486
ISA IA-32
Word size 32 bit
4 octets
8 nibbles
Process 700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
, 500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
, 350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
Technology CMOS
Clock 33 Mhz-120 MHz
Package CPGA-168, SQFP-208
Socket Socket 1, Socket 2, Socket 3
Succession
Am386 Am5x86

Am486 was a family of 32-bit 4th-generation x86 microprocessors introduced by AMD in 1993. Am486 chips were compatible with Intel's 80486, but offered very equivalent performance for cheaper prices.

History[edit]

Just like AMD's Am386, Am486 was also delayed after expensive and lengthy litigation with Intel. The first models of the Am486 (Am486DX) were finally introduced in April of 1993. The first set of AMD chips were based on Intel's microcode cleanroom implementation. AMD manufactured their first Am486s at their Submicron Development Center (SDC) in Sunnyvale, CA on a 0.7 µm process. Chips were originally restricted to AMD's own foundry as they did not believe their agreement with Intel allowed them to use outside foundry (this became irrelevant later on)[1]. By the end of 1993 AMD revenue of the Am486 reached $250M taking a total of 20% share of the market[2]. By 1995 that share peaked at 40%.

AMD's last models (Am486DX4's) for this family were clocked at up to 120 MHz which gave AMD a significant performance advantage compared to Intel's earliest Pentium chips (which were only clocked at around 60 MHz). The Am486DX4 lower price (compared to Intel's DX4) and socket-comparability ensured strong sale for quite some time after their introduction.

Earliest (700 nm) models operated at 5V, when AMD undergone a process shrink around late 1994/95 they introduced 3.3V models. Initially all models packed 8KB L1$ that used write-through policy. AMD later (See § Larger Cache) introduced various models with other cache set ups including write-back and double the L1$ size which was manufactured on a 350 nm process.

Die[edit]

Am486DX2-66[edit]

AMD 80486DX2 die.jpg

Am486DX4-100NV8T[edit]

AMD 80486DX4-100 die.JPG

Members[edit]

Am486DX[edit]

Am486DX2-66 from 1994.

The Am486DX chips are the standard 486 chips with an integrated FPU on-die. First versions introduced had lower clock frequency which matched their external bus speed. Later versions introduced a clock multiplier: DX2 having a multiplier of 2 and DX4 a multiplier of 3.

Am486DX Processors
ModelLaunchedProcessFreqBusMax MemPackage
Am486DX-25April 1993700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX-33April 1993700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX-40April 1993700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-100September 1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
50 MHz
0.05 GHz
50,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-100V16B1995350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
50 MHz
0.05 GHz
50,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-100V8B1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
50 MHz
0.05 GHz
50,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-100V8T1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
50 MHz
0.05 GHz
50,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-50June 1993700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
, 500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
50 MHz
0.05 GHz
50,000 kHz
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-66June 1993700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
, 500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-66NV8TAugust 1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-66V16BMarch 1997350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168, SQFP-208
Am486DX2-66V8B1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-66V8T1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-80September 1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
80 MHz
0.08 GHz
80,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-80NV8TAugust 1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
80 MHz
0.08 GHz
80,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-80V8T1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
80 MHz
0.08 GHz
80,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-100September 1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-100NV8T1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-100V16BMarch 1997350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168, SQFP-208
Am486DX4-100V8T1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-1205 June 1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
120 MHz
0.12 GHz
120,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-120NV8T1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
120 MHz
0.12 GHz
120,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-120V8T1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
120 MHz
0.12 GHz
120,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-75September 1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
75 MHz
0.075 GHz
75,000 kHz
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-90September 1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
90 MHz
0.09 GHz
90,000 kHz
30 MHz
0.03 GHz
30,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-90NV8T1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
90 MHz
0.09 GHz
90,000 kHz
30 MHz
0.03 GHz
30,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DXL-40October 1993700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DXL2-66September 1993700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DXL2-80September 1993700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
80 MHz
0.08 GHz
80,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DXLV-33June 199333 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Count: 30

Am486SX[edit]

The Am486SX chips are somewhat a crippled version of the 486DX, models that do not include an integrated FPU. Those chips were sold at cheaper prices because of the smaller die (in the case of omitted FPU on-die) or because the FPU was defective and was thus disabled and sold as SX. Nevertheless they became an attractive option for those looking for just a performance upgrade from their older 386.

Am486SX Processors
ModelLaunchedProcessFreqBusMax MemPackage
Am486SE-25500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486SE-33500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486SX-33July 1993700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486SX-40July 1993700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486SX2-50February 1994700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
50 MHz
0.05 GHz
50,000 kHz
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486SX2-66April 1994700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486SXLV-33700 nm
0.7 μm
7.0e-4 mm
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Count: 7

Am486 Embedded[edit]

AMD sold a number of processors geared specifically toward the embedded market. Unlike the Am386 embedded chips, the Am486 versions were identical to their non-embedded SX/DX counterparts. They were only different from AMD's own company-support standpoint. Embedded chips were marked with "E" suffix (e.g. "SE"/"DE").

Am486 Embedded Processors
ModelLaunchedProcessFreqBusMax MemPackage
Am486DE2-66V8T1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168, SQFP-208
Am486SE-25500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486SE-33500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Count: 3

Larger Cache & Post-lawsuit[edit]

Am486DX2-66NV8T "No ICE" chip.

In 1994 AMD introduced a number of newer models which had Write-Back cache policy as well as a few models with twice as large cache (16 KB vs 8 KB). The older models were renamed with a "V8T" suffix; V = 3.3V, 8 = 8 KB cache, T = Write-Through Policy (e.g. Am486DX2-80V8T). The new models with the Write-Back Policy had "B" instead of "T" and the 16 KB versions had "16" instead of "8" (e.g. Am486DX2-66V16B).

Following the conclusion of an 8-year legal battle with Intel, the results was AMD was allowed to copy and distribute Am286s and Am386s chips. Unfortunately it was also concluded that AMD did not have the right copy Intel's microcode for the 80486. AMD was forced to destroy the older models containing Intel's in-circuit emulation (ICE) microcode. The "ICE microcode" was referred to the control program which was stored in the 386's/486's programmable logic array in the processor. All newer AMD models were marked with an "N" (for "No ICE"). For example the previous model Am486DX4-100V8T became Am486DX4-100NV8T.

Newer Processors
ModelLaunchedProcessFreqBusMax Mem
Am486DE2-66V8T1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX2-100V16B1995350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
50 MHz
0.05 GHz
50,000 kHz
Am486DX2-100V8B1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
50 MHz
0.05 GHz
50,000 kHz
Am486DX2-100V8T1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
50 MHz
0.05 GHz
50,000 kHz
Am486DX2-66NV8TAugust 1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX2-66SV8BMarch 1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX2-66V16BMarch 1997350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX2-66V8B1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX2-66V8T1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX2-80NV8TAugust 1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
80 MHz
0.08 GHz
80,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
Am486DX2-80SV8BMarch 1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
80 MHz
0.08 GHz
80,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
Am486DX2-80V8T1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
80 MHz
0.08 GHz
80,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
Am486DX4-100NV8T1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX4-100SV16BMarch 1997350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX4-100SV8BMarch 1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX4-100V16BMarch 1997350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX4-100V8T1994500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
Am486DX4-120NV8T1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
120 MHz
0.12 GHz
120,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
Am486DX4-120SV8BMarch 1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
120 MHz
0.12 GHz
120,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
Am486DX4-120V8T1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
120 MHz
0.12 GHz
120,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
Am486DX4-75SV8BMarch 1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
75 MHz
0.075 GHz
75,000 kHz
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
Am486DX4-90NV8T1995500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
90 MHz
0.09 GHz
90,000 kHz
30 MHz
0.03 GHz
30,000 kHz
Count: 22

Enhanced Am486[edit]

See also: Am5x86

Am486DX4-120SV8B Enhanced Am486 @ 120 MHz.

In 1996 AMD introduced a number of chips they branded as "Enhanced Am486". Those processors had a number of new power saving features (e.g. SMM and Stop Clock Mode). The additional features found on the enhanced Am486 get disabled if the processor is used in a socket that does not support them, making them backwards-compatible. The new Enhanced Am486s were marked with "S" (for SMM), for example Am486DX2-66SV8B. Note that some later models did not include the "S" even though they were enhanced models.

Enhanced Processors
ModelLaunchedProcessFreqBusMax MemPackage
Am486DX2-66SV8BMarch 1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX2-66V16BMarch 1997350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
66 MHz
0.066 GHz
66,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168, SQFP-208
Am486DX2-80SV8BMarch 1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
80 MHz
0.08 GHz
80,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-100SV16BMarch 1997350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168, SQFP-208
Am486DX4-100SV8BMarch 1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168, SQFP-208
Am486DX4-100V16BMarch 1997350 nm
0.35 μm
3.5e-4 mm
100 MHz
0.1 GHz
100,000 kHz
33 MHz
0.033 GHz
33,000 kHz
CPGA-168, SQFP-208
Am486DX4-120SV8BMarch 1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
120 MHz
0.12 GHz
120,000 kHz
40 MHz
0.04 GHz
40,000 kHz
CPGA-168
Am486DX4-75SV8BMarch 1996500 nm
0.5 μm
5.0e-4 mm
75 MHz
0.075 GHz
75,000 kHz
25 MHz
0.025 GHz
25,000 kHz
CPGA-168, SQFP-208
Count: 8

Documents[edit]

Datasheets[edit]

Manuals[edit]

Thermal & Clock[edit]

Others[edit]

References[edit]

  1. DataQuest Monday. (1993). DataQuest.
  2. Fletcher, Andrew. E. Profile of the Worldwide Semiconductor Industry - Market Prospects to 1997: Market Prospects to 1997. (2013). Elsevier. ISBN 9781483284859.
Facts about "Am486 - AMD"
designerAMD +
first announcedFebruary 1992 +
first launchedApril 1993 +
full page nameamd/am486 +
instance ofmicroprocessor family +
instruction set architectureIA-32 +
manufacturerAMD +
packageCPGA-168 + and SQFP-208 +
process700 nm (0.7 μm, 7.0e-4 mm) +, 500 nm (0.5 μm, 5.0e-4 mm) + and 350 nm (0.35 μm, 3.5e-4 mm) +
socketSocket 1 +, Socket 2 + and Socket 3 +
technologyCMOS +
word size32 bit (4 octets, 8 nibbles) +