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{{intel title|Process Technology History}}
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{{intel title|Process Technology}}
This article details '''[[Intel]]'s [[semiconductor process technology]]''' history for research and posterity.
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This article details details '''[[Intel]]'s [[Semiconductor Process Technology]]''' history for research and posterity.
  
== Overview ==
 
 
The table below shows the history of Intel's process scaling. Values were taken from various Intel documents including IDF presentations, ISSCC papers, and IEDM papers. Note that while a great deal of effort was put into ensuring the accuracy of the values, some numbers vary to a small degree between Intel's own documents and therefore discrepancies may exist. [[SRAM]] bitcell areas refer to a high-density 6T bitcell with the exception of the very first few processes where smaller cell designs were used. Additionally, the metal layer count is for the client dies (example consumer mobile & desktop); server models utilize considerably more layers. Finally, from the [[45 nm]] node, Intel has switched to utilizing a [[high-κ]] material, therefore the oxide thickness shown refers to the [[equivalent oxide thickness]] instead.
 
The table below shows the history of Intel's process scaling. Values were taken from various Intel documents including IDF presentations, ISSCC papers, and IEDM papers. Note that while a great deal of effort was put into ensuring the accuracy of the values, some numbers vary to a small degree between Intel's own documents and therefore discrepancies may exist. [[SRAM]] bitcell areas refer to a high-density 6T bitcell with the exception of the very first few processes where smaller cell designs were used. Additionally, the metal layer count is for the client dies (example consumer mobile & desktop); server models utilize considerably more layers. Finally, from the [[45 nm]] node, Intel has switched to utilizing a [[high-κ]] material, therefore the oxide thickness shown refers to the [[equivalent oxide thickness]] instead.
 
== Nomenclature ==
 
Intel has been using the same naming scheme for decades. All process technologies (including packaging technologies) begin with a 'P' followed by the [[wafer size]] and the process ID. Generally, the process ID is an auto-increment value with odd values generally reserved for SoC and I/O (low power) devices while the even values have been used for Intel premier line of high-performance processors.
 
 
[[File:intel process naming scheme.svg|400px]]
 
 
  
 
== Timeline ==
 
== Timeline ==
[[File:intel 1micron yield.png|right|250px|thumb|[[1 µm]] vs [[500 nm]] yield]]
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[[File:intel 1micron yield.png|right|300px|thumb|[[1 µm]] vs [[500 nm]] yield]]
[[File:intel historical 2yr process.png|250px|thumb|historical roadmap]]
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[[File:intel historical 2yr process.png|300px|thumb|historical roadmap]]
[[File:intel tech ramps 1um to 65nm.png|right|250px|thumb|Ramps from [[1 µm]] to [[65 nm]]]]
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[[File:intel tech ramps 1um to 65nm.png|right|300px|thumb|Ramps from [[1 µm]] to [[65 nm]]]]
[[File:intel roadmap past 180nm.png|right|250px|thumb|Roadmap past [[180 nm]]]]
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[[File:intel roadmap past 180nm.png|right|300px|thumb|Roadmap past [[180 nm]]]]
[[File:intel sram tests 130nm to 45nm.png|right|250px|thumb|SRAM test chips from [[130 nm]] to [[45 nm]]]]
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[[File:intel sram tests 130nm to 45nm.png|right|300px|thumb|SRAM test chips from [[130 nm]] to [[45 nm]]]]
[[File:intel fab roadmap from 2003.png|250px|thumb|Intel's fab roadmap from 2003. Intel had to switch to FinFET after gate length scaling stalled due to subpar electrical characteristics.]]
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[[File:intel fab roadmap from 2003.png|300px|thumb|Intel's fab roadmap from 2003. Intel had to switch to FinFET after gate length scaling stalled due to subpar electrical characteristics.]]
[[File:intel sram density scaling.png|250px|thumb|[[65 nm]] to [[32 nm]] SRAM scaling]]
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[[File:intel sram density scaling.png|300px|thumb|[[65 nm]] to [[32 nm]] SRAM scaling]]
[[File:intel 90nm 32nm yield.png|250px|thumb|[[90 nm]] to [[32 nm]]]]
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[[File:intel 90nm 32nm yield.png|300px|thumb|[[90 nm]] to [[32 nm]]]]
[[File:intel scaling from 45nm to 10nm.png|250px|thumb|Intel scaling from [[45 nm]] to [[10 nm]]]]
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[[File:intel scaling from 45nm to 10nm.png|300px|thumb|Intel scaling from [[45 nm]] to [[10 nm]]]]
[[File:intel scaling roadmap to 5nm.png|250px|thumb|Intel roadmap from [[10 nm]] to [[5 nm]] and an advance packaging roadmap.]]
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<div style="overflow-x: scroll; white-space: nowrap; min-width: 300px">
<div style="overflow-x: scroll; white-space: nowrap; min-width: 300px" class="scrollable">
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<table class="wikitable" style="text-align: center; ">
<table class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;">
 
 
<tr><th>Year</th><th>Process</th><th>[[technology node|Node]]</th><th>MLayers</th><th>µarchs</th><th>Gate</th><th>Interconnects</th><th colspan="4">Attributes</th></tr>
 
<tr><th>Year</th><th>Process</th><th>[[technology node|Node]]</th><th>MLayers</th><th>µarchs</th><th>Gate</th><th>Interconnects</th><th colspan="4">Attributes</th></tr>
{{intel proc tech |year=1972 |name=PMOS I |mlayers=1 |node=10 µm
 
  |archs=4004
 
  |a1=Gate Dielectric |d1=SiO<sub>2</sub>
 
  |a2=L<sub>g</sub>  |d2=10.0 µm
 
}}
 
{{intel proc tech |year=1974 |name=HMOS I |mlayers=1 |node=8 µm
 
  |archs=
 
  |a1=Gate Dielectric |d1=SiO<sub>2</sub>
 
  |a2=L<sub>g</sub>  |d2=8.0 µm
 
}}
 
{{intel proc tech |year=1976 |name=HMOS II/III |mlayers=1 |node=6 µm
 
  |archs=8080
 
  |a1=Gate Dielectric |d1=SiO<sub>2</sub>
 
  |a2=L<sub>g</sub>  |d2=6.0 µm
 
}}
 
 
{{intel proc tech |year=1977 |name=CHMOS I |mlayers=1 |node=3 µm
 
{{intel proc tech |year=1977 |name=CHMOS I |mlayers=1 |node=3 µm
 
   |archs=8085, 8086, 8088, 80186
 
   |archs=8085, 8086, 8088, 80186
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   |a1=T<sub>ox</sub> |d1=15 nm    |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=SiO<sub>2</sub>
 
   |a1=T<sub>ox</sub> |d1=15 nm    |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=SiO<sub>2</sub>
 
   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=4 V      |a22=SRAM            |d22=111 µm²
 
   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=4 V      |a22=SRAM            |d22=111 µm²
   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=800 nm
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   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=800 µm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=1.7 µm    |a42=MMP            |d42=2 µm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=1.7 µm    |a42=MMP            |d42=2 µm
 
}}
 
}}
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   |a1=T<sub>ox</sub> |d1=8 nm      |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=SiO<sub>2</sub>
 
   |a1=T<sub>ox</sub> |d1=8 nm      |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=SiO<sub>2</sub>
 
   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=3.3 V    |a22=SRAM            |d22=
 
   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=3.3 V    |a22=SRAM            |d22=
   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=600 nm
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   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=600 µm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=          |a42=MMP            |d42=1.4 µm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=          |a42=MMP            |d42=1.4 µm
 
}}
 
}}
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   |a4=CPP            |d4=336 nm    |a42=MMP            |d42=345 nm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=336 nm    |a42=MMP            |d42=345 nm
 
}}
 
}}
{{intel proc tech |year=2003 |name=P1262 (CPU)<br>P1263 (SoC, I/O) |mlayers=7 |node=90 nm
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{{intel proc tech |year=2003 |name=P1262 |mlayers=7 |node=90 nm
 
   |xtor img=intel 90nm gate.png
 
   |xtor img=intel 90nm gate.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel_90nm_gate_interconnect.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel_90nm_gate_interconnect.png
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   |a4=CPP            |d4=260 nm    |a42=MMP            |d42=220 nm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=260 nm    |a42=MMP            |d42=220 nm
 
}}
 
}}
{{intel proc tech |year=2005 |name=P1264 (CPU)<br>P1265 (SoC, I/O) |mlayers=8 |node=65 nm
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{{intel proc tech |year=2005 |name=P1264 |mlayers=8 |node=65 nm
 
   |xtor img=intel 65nm gate.png
 
   |xtor img=intel 65nm gate.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel_65nm_gate_interconnect.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel_65nm_gate_interconnect.png
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   |a4=CPP            |d4=220 nm    |a42=MMP            |d42=210 nm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=220 nm    |a42=MMP            |d42=210 nm
 
}}
 
}}
{{intel proc tech |year=2007 |name=P1266 (CPU)<br>P1267 (SoC, I/O) |mlayers=9 |node=45 nm
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{{intel proc tech |year=2007 |name=P1266 |mlayers=9 |node=45 nm
 
   |xtor img=intel 45nm gate.png
 
   |xtor img=intel 45nm gate.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel_45nm_gate_interconnects.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel_45nm_gate_interconnects.png
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   |a4=CPP            |d4=160 nm    |a42=MMP            |d42=180 nm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=160 nm    |a42=MMP            |d42=180 nm
 
}}
 
}}
{{intel proc tech |year=2009 |name=P1268 (CPU)<br>P1269 (SoC, I/O) |mlayers=10 |node=32 nm
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{{intel proc tech |year=2009 |name=P1268 |mlayers=10 |node=32 nm
 
   |xtor img=intel 32nm gate.png
 
   |xtor img=intel 32nm gate.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel 32nm gate interconnect.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel 32nm gate interconnect.png
 
   |archs=Westmere, Sandy Bridge
 
   |archs=Westmere, Sandy Bridge
   |a1=T<sub>oxe</sub>|d1=1 nm      |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=High-κ
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   |a1=T<sub>oxe</sub>|d1=           |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=High-κ
 
   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=0.75 V    |a22=SRAM            |d22=0.148 µm²
 
   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=0.75 V    |a22=SRAM            |d22=0.148 µm²
 
   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=30 nm
 
   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=30 nm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=112.5 nm  |a42=MMP            |d42=112.5 nm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=112.5 nm  |a42=MMP            |d42=112.5 nm
 
}}
 
}}
{{intel proc tech |year=2011 |name=P1270 (CPU)<br>P1271 (SoC, I/O) |mlayers=11 |node=22 nm
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{{intel proc tech |year=2011 |name=P1270 |mlayers=11 |node=22 nm
 
   |xtor img=intel 22nm gate.png
 
   |xtor img=intel 22nm gate.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel 22nm gate interconnect.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel 22nm gate interconnect.png
 
   |archs=Ivy Bridge, Haswell
 
   |archs=Ivy Bridge, Haswell
   |a1=T<sub>oxe</sub>|d1=0.9 nm    |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=High-κ
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   |a1=T<sub>oxe</sub>|d1=           |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=High-κ
 
   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=0.75 V    |a22=SRAM            |d22=0.092 µm²
 
   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=0.75 V    |a22=SRAM            |d22=0.092 µm²
 
   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=26 nm
 
   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=26 nm
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   |a6=W<sub>''fin''</sub>      |d6=8 nm      |a62=H<sub>''fin''</sub> |d62=34 nm
 
   |a6=W<sub>''fin''</sub>      |d6=8 nm      |a62=H<sub>''fin''</sub> |d62=34 nm
 
}}
 
}}
{{intel proc tech |year=2014 |name=P1272 (CPU)<br>P1273 (SoC, I/O) |mlayers=12 |node=14 nm
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{{intel proc tech |year=2014 |name=P1272 |mlayers=11 |node=14 nm
 
   |xtor img=intel 14nm gate top.png
 
   |xtor img=intel 14nm gate top.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel 14nm gate interconnect.png
 
   |interconnects img=intel 14nm gate interconnect.png
 
   |archs=Broadwell, Skylake, Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake
 
   |archs=Broadwell, Skylake, Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake
 
   |a1=T<sub>oxe</sub>|d1=          |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=High-κ
 
   |a1=T<sub>oxe</sub>|d1=          |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=High-κ
   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=0.70 V    |a22=SRAM            |d22=0.0499 µm²
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   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=           |a22=SRAM            |d22=0.0499 µm²
 
   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=20 nm
 
   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=20 nm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=70 nm      |a42=MMP            |d42=52 nm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=70 nm      |a42=MMP            |d42=52 nm
 
   |a5=P<sub>''fin''</sub>      |d5=42 nm
 
   |a5=P<sub>''fin''</sub>      |d5=42 nm
   |a6=W<sub>''fin''</sub>      |d6=8 nm      |a62=H<sub>''fin''</sub> |d62=42-46 nm
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   |a6=W<sub>''fin''</sub>      |d6=8 nm      |a62=H<sub>''fin''</sub> |d62=42 nm
 
}}
 
}}
{{intel proc tech |year=2019 |name=P1274 (CPU)<br>P1275 (SoC, I/O) |mlayers=12-13 |node=10 nm
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{{intel proc tech |year=2017 |name=P1274 |mlayers= |node=10 nm
   |archs=Cannon Lake, Icelake, Tigerlake, Sapphire Rapids
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   |archs=Cannonlake, Icelake, Tigerlake
 
   |a1=T<sub>oxe</sub>|d1=          |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=High-κ
 
   |a1=T<sub>oxe</sub>|d1=          |a12=Gate Dielectric |d12=High-κ
   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=0.70 V    |a22=SRAM            |d22=0.0312 µm²
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   |a2=V<sub>dd</sub> |d2=           |a22=SRAM            |d22=0.0312 µm²
   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=18 nm
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   |a3=L<sub>g</sub>  |d3=18 nm ?
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=54 nm      |a42=MMP            |d42=36 nm
 
   |a4=CPP            |d4=54 nm      |a42=MMP            |d42=36 nm
 
   |a5=P<sub>''fin''</sub>      |d5=34 nm
 
   |a5=P<sub>''fin''</sub>      |d5=34 nm
   |a6=W<sub>''fin''</sub>      |d6=7 nm      |a62=H<sub>''fin''</sub> |d62=44-55 nm
+
   |a6=W<sub>''fin''</sub>      |d6=5 nm      |a62=H<sub>''fin''</sub> |d62=53 nm
 
}}
 
}}
{{intel proc tech |year=2021 |name=P1276 (CPU)<br>P1277 (SoC, I/O) |mlayers= |node=7 nm
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{{intel proc tech |year=2019 |name=P1276 |mlayers= |node=7 nm
  |archs=Granite Rapids
 
 
}}
 
}}
{{intel proc tech |year=2024 |name=P1278 (CPU)<br>P1279 (SoC, I/O) |mlayers= |node=5 nm
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{{intel proc tech |year=2022 |name=P1278 |mlayers= |node=5 nm
 
}}
 
}}
 
</table>
 
</table>
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== SRAM Scaling ==
 
== SRAM Scaling ==
For Intel, from [[2 µm]] to [[10 nm]], SRAM 6T [[bit cells]] have had an average shrink of 0.496x in an attempt to maintain [[Moore's Law]] double density observation/requirement. Note that SRAM shrunk more significantly prior to the [[65 nm process]] node. It should also be noted that logic typically scales better than the typical 6T SRAM cells, so raw logic density scaled more over time. Nonetheless, the size of the SRAM can be as much as three to four times the density of the typical logic cell.
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For Intel, from [[2 µm]] to [[10 nm]], SRAM 6T [[bit cells]] have had an average shrink of 0.496x in an attempt to maintain [[Moore's Law]] double density observation/requirement. Note that SRAM shrunk more significantly prior to the [[65 nm process]] node.
  
  
 
[[File:intel sram bit cell scaling.png|900px]]
 
[[File:intel sram bit cell scaling.png|900px]]
 
== Other processes ==
 
{{other processes list}}
 
 
== See also ==
 
* {{intel|Copy Exactly!}}
 
 
[[Category:intel]]
 

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